More than 200,000 “cross-border” workers could be caught up in different Covid-19 rules for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, writes Michael Goodier.

Some 130,000 people cross between England and Wales alone for work, new data analysis shows.

Wales now has stricter rules than England on exercise – and unlike its neighbour, has not encouraged people who are able to return to work, and can not work from home, to do so.

A total of 89,900 people who live in Wales work in England, while 40,500 people who live in England work in Wales.

A further 42,000 people cross the Scottish and English border for work, with the vast majority of those living south of the border.

The Scottish government has also maintained stricter Covid-19 lockdown rules than those announced by Boris Johnson last week, and has not encouraged people to return to work.

A further 75,000 people live in the UK but work outside of the UK, the data shows.

The new analysis was based on statistics collected annually by the ONS.

Separate data suggest that one in six UK workers are in construction and manufacturing – industries in which people could now be returning to work in England.